Approver is not reliable as a witness when he made a totally exculpatory statement. 1982 SCMR 1110. Ashiq Hussain Shah v. Ashiq Ali Shah etc.
Evidence of accomplice need corroboration, though Court can record conviction on the evidence of an accomplice yet as a rule of prudence corroboration in material particulars is needed. 1993 SCMR 785, Munawar Hussain.
Corroboration needed of approver's statement as he is a man of doubtful character. (DB) NLR 1985 Cr. 254. State v. Abdus Sattar etc.
Necessity of corroboration of accomplice's statement. Conviction can be based on the basis of evidence of an accomplice but the Court as a rule of prudence seeks corroboration in material particulars. However, exception to the rule can be made in peculiar circumstances of a case. 1993 FC SCMR 785, Munawar Hussain.
Approver's evidence requires independent corroboration that the accused had taken part in the offence charged, but no corroboration is required that the approver also took part in the crime. PLD 1995 FC 152 Fazal Dad v. Crown. PLD 1958 SC 317.
Confessional statement by approver u/s 164, Cr.P.C. before tender of pardon is to be recorded without oath and if after pardon then on oath, otherwise there is no difference between the two statements. PLD 1955 FC 113 Ibrahim Bhak v. Crown.
Approver assigned minor role in the crime is immaterial, the statement of the approver must be treated as evidence in the case. PLD 1954 Lah. 783. Juma etc. v. Crown.
Approver's evidence need not be corroborated in every detail, circumstantial evidence connecting accused with crime is enough. PLD 1950 Lah. 115 Muhammad Ramzan v. Crown.
Omission to record reasons for tender of pardon to approver will not affect admissibility of his evidence unless failure of justice is caused. PLD 1955 FC 152. Fazal Dad. PLD 1958 SC 317.
Accomplice's evidence not corroborated in material particulars is not to be acted upon. Evidence of one accomplice cannot be used to corroborate the evidence of another accomplice. The value of retracted confession depends on the motive which made the approver to retract. Was it done because he realised that the confession was false or he failed to get the benefit for which he had made the confession? PLD 1949 P.C. 90 Bhuboni Sahu v. King.
An accomplice is a guilty associate or partner in crime. When a witness is not concerned with the crime he is not accomplice and his statement needs no corroboration. PLD 1950 Lah. 129 (DB) Crown v. Ghulam Rasul.
Accomplice as an approver is a competent witness in all cases except those which are punishable with Had under Hudood Ordinance/Orders. PLJ 1993 Cr.C. (Quetta) 453, Muhammad Anwar.
Two essentials to be satisfied by approver's statement. (1) He took part in the crime. (2) He is corroborated in material particulars that each accused took part in the crime. (DB) PLD 1954 Lah. 783 Juma v. Crown.
Recovery of dead body before approver's statement cannot be used as corroboration of that statement. PLD 1958 Pesh. 10. Ashiq Hussain.
Statement of approver may be corroborated by confession of co-accused. PLD 1958 SC 317. Rafiq Ahmed.
Uncorroborated statement of approver cannot be made basis of conviction. (DB) PLD 1957 Pesh. 75. Awal Khan.
Approver's statement must be corroborated in material particulars. PLD 1964 Lah. 32. PLD 1966 Lah. 739. PLD 1962 Dac. 249 PLD 1967 SC 545 Ramzan Ali. PLD 1975 Lah. 103. Muhammad Sabir.
Person passing illegal gratification as an accomplice, corroborated by prior complaint and recovery of marked currency notes. (DB) PLD 1950 Lah. 361. Crown v. Abdul Rehman.
Bribe-giver. Case resting mainly on the evidence of the bribe-giver, must be scanned with much caution. The Court must consider whether the facts and the circumstances support the story of the bribe-giver. (SC) PLD 1963 SC 38. Noor Muhammad.
Decoy witness or bribe-giver is an accomplice and cannot be believed without corroboration. PLD 1967 Lah. 199 Din Muhammad.
Bribe-giver an interested witness. The testimony of bribe-giver requires corroboration. 1977 P.Cr.LJ 256. Abdul Shakoor.
Bribe-giver is not an accomplice. PLD 1963 Lah. 250 Qamar Ali Shah (SC) 1970 SCMR 770 Rashid Ahmed.
Co-accused statement of. Accused cannot be convicted on the basis of exculpatory statement made by an acquitted co-accused. (DB) 1974 P.Cr.LJ 211. Muhammad Bakhsh.